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[新品新技术]蔡司150年 翻译稿

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蔡司显微镜领域的巨人,可以说蔡司的历史就是一部显微镜发展史。为了普及显微镜知识,本人特此翻译“蔡司显微镜150周年纪念回顾”(来自zeiss官方网站)。采取中英文对照。后附原英文稿(内有图)。 xq =+M!V  
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A man of skill, experience and foresight COFs?L.`  
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卡尔蔡司-一个富有技能与经验的人,一个具有远见的人。 )]J I Q"rR  
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150 years, and the legend keeps growing @ 5 kKMz  
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拥有150年的辉煌历史,卡尔.蔡司将续写新的传奇 *IGxa  
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Questions like these may be pointless, but they are nevertheless intriguing: Is a glass of champagne (to suit the occasion), with half of its contents sipped, half empty or half full? And does a 150th anniversary make its subject 150 years old or 150 years young? G&D N'bp  
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如何来描述你面前的半杯香槟?是已经喝掉一半了?还是说已经满了半杯了?这样的脑筋急转弯问题,尽管听起来有点无聊,但用在卡尔.蔡司身上似乎很有深意:150年的纪念是表明已经很老?还是刚刚开始? )FWF T:P~  
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Well, it is all a matter of how you look at it. To be sure, with all the tradition, handed-down values and sound standards of quality involved, the 150-year-old cannot be denied a distinct maturity. On the other hand, there is an undiminished, youthful vitality and an inexhaustible urge for permanent innovation and improvement. a47Btd'm  
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这要看你如何看待。一直以来秉承的价值观和高标准的质量要求已经表明蔡司是一个成熟的公司;但与此同时,追求卓著使得蔡司依旧充满了活力与创新的激情。 7;CeQx/W)W  
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Surprising? Not quite. After all, the innovative power, the future-anticipating spirit of progress are part of the tradition. They have been there from the very onset. H7Y}qP5X  
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其实这并不矛盾,创新与追求卓越从一开始就融入了蔡司的传统之中。 Maa5a  
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Whether considered old or young, Carl Zeiss is a legend. But a legend that is very much alive. No matter in which part of the world: wherever someone mentions Carl Zeiss, the name invokes microscopes. And, reportedly, it has caused the normally matter-of-fact face of many a scientist to mirror enthusiasm. IE_@:]K}Ja  
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不管是老还是年轻。卡尔.蔡司是一个不朽的传奇。全球不管什么地方,当提到卡尔蔡司,人们就会立即想到显微镜,并无不流出露敬仰的神情。 2CmeO&(Qf*  
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Like Rome, a reputation like that was not built in a day. To trace it back to its roots, there is hardly a fitter occasion than this 150th anniversary. Well then, let's stroll back into the history of Carl Zeiss, to find out V?_%Y<|L  
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正如罗马城非一日建成,我们有必要回顾卡尔.蔡司150年的历史。让我们了解这一传奇是如何开始的。 3M@>kIT8  
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May 10, 1846. A certain Carl Zeiss submits an application to the state authorities in Weimar, asking for permission to establish a mechanic's workshop. To the Grand-Ducal government this is a matter for run-of-the-mill bureaucracy and not to be handled with undue speed (there has not been much change since, it seems). Anyhow, a deed is issued on November 19, permitting the applicant to set up a workshop in Jena and to make and sell mechanical and optical instruments. #e|eWi>  
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1846年5月10日。一个名叫卡尔.蔡司的人向德国魏玛(Weimar)当局提交了一份申请,要求建立一个机械作坊。这样的事情对于government而言实在只能算是一件很普通的例行公事,犯不着为此特批或加速办理。在几个月之后,也就是11月19号,蔡司终于得到了的许可证,并在耶拿开办了他的作坊,从事机械和光学仪器的制造和销售。 JQtH },T r  
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Carl Zeiss does not dither about. The fact that the workshop has actually been opened two days earlier, on the 17th, speaks of the young mechanic's ambition. Some people say he started with a borrowed sum of100 thalers. First address: Jena, Neugasse 7. Carl Zeiss? Who's that? Your particulars, please, Sir! Zeiss, Carl Friedrich, born in Weimar in 1816, grammar school, apprenticeship with Dr. Friedrich Körner, mechanic and supplier to the court (who has been making simple microscopes since the early forties); attendance of lectures at the Jena University (mathematics, experimental physics, anthropology, mineralogy, optics); journeyman's travels for several years; practicals at Professor Schleiden's physiological institute in Jena. K[ \z'9Q  
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蔡司对于作坊的未来是踌躇满志。事实上,在拿到许可证之前的两天,也就是11月17日,他已经提前开业了。据说,他的事业是靠借来的100泰勒(当时德国货币)起步的。当时的地址是耶拿.纽加斯(Jena Neugasse) 7号。谁是蔡司?当时几乎没什么人知道。让我们说详细一点。蔡司.卡尔.费雷德里克(Zeiss, Carl Friedrich), 1816年生于魏玛,上过文法学校;当过费雷德里克.Körner博士的学徒(Körner博士给宫廷提供维修及其他服务,在40年代早期开始从事显微镜制造)。蔡司还参加过耶拿大学的讲座(涉及数学、实验物理、人类学、矿物学、光学);学徒期满后有过几年打工兼旅行的经历。此外还在施莱登教授于耶拿的生理实验室实习了一段时间。(就是那个提出细胞学说的牛人,译者注) nuCK7X  
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And now: new-made owner of a one-man business. With little money, just the most essential tools, working all on his own in the dim light of an oil-lamp, but, what is more important, full of ideas, energy and determination. He sells eyeglasses, magnifiers and balances, builds and repairs physical and chemical apparatus for the university. The business gets going. In 1847 Zeiss moves his workshop to a bigger site and employs his first apprentice. The same year sees the death of his former master, Dr. Körner, and Zeiss now turns to the subject that has fascinated him ever since his own apprentice years: the making of microscopes Kz<xuulr  
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现在,他有了自己的事业。尽管只是一个人的小作坊,资金也不多。他仅靠简单的必要工具,常常在昏暗的煤油灯下工作;但重要的是他有足够多的想法,充满激情,并且信心满满。他的作坊靠出售眼镜、放大镜还有天平为业。他还为耶拿大学维修物理和化学仪器。生意不大,倒也顺当。1847年,蔡司将厂房搬到了更大的地方,并且收了第一个学徒。就在这一年,他原来的老板Körner博士去世,蔡司开始从事在学徒时就让他着迷的事业-制造显微镜。 !;xE7w  
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Microscopes: A Long Story of Success 9F-k:hD |  
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September 1847: With skill, experience, vigor, and ideas of his own, Carl Zeiss starts making microscopes on his new premises at Wagnergasse 32. These are simple microscopes, consisting of one lens only and intended mainly for dissecting work. During the first year, Zeiss sells as many as 23 of them, an indication that they do well in comparison with other makes. Nevertheless, they undergo many improvements during the following years. Lg?'1dg  
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1847年9月,蔡司在其位于Wagnergasse 32号的新厂房开始制造他的第一台显微镜。这是一台简单的显微镜;只有一个透镜,主要用于解剖工作。那一年,蔡司卖出了23台显微镜。与其他生产商比,已经是一个不错的业绩。 BNy"YK$  
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Encouraged by this early success, Carl Zeiss soon sets about a more demanding task – the production of compound microscopes. These consist of two optical elements: an objective and an eyepiece. The first unit of the “Stand I” model goes on sale in 1857 zb" hy"hKw  
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首战告捷,让蔡司有了更大胆的想法。他开始尝试制造复式显微镜。这种显微镜有两个光学部件:一个物镜和一个目镜。1857年,蔡司的第一台复式显微镜“stand I”面世。 e ?YbG.(E9  
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Modifications of this, as well as new designs follow. In 1861 Carl Zeiss is awarded a gold medal at the Thuringian Industrial Exhibition, because his compound microscopes are ranked “among the most excellent instruments made in Germany”. In1863 Carl Zeiss is appointed supplier to the Grand-Ducal court. Now, after not quite two decades, the flourishing business employs about 20 people. ^55?VQB  
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随后,新的改进和新的设计不断出现。1861年,蔡司在图林根工业展上被授予金奖。颁奖词中说道:“卡尔.蔡司的复式显微镜是德国人制造的最激动人心的仪器之一。”1863年,卡尔.蔡司成为宫廷的指定提供商。此时,蔡司已经拥有约20个雇员。 [!le 9aNg  
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The success of those years is all the more worthy of note as it has been achieved merely by skill and experience, applied to a trial-and-error method of manufacturing instruments whose designs lack a theoretical foundation J$Epj  
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需要指出的是,这些成功完全来自卡尔.蔡司丰富的经验和熟练的技能。是无数次“失败-重来”这样的反复试验后换来的成绩。这样低效率的制造方法是因为理论的匮乏。 RuZ;hnE&  
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As a man of foresight, Zeiss is well aware of this lack. And he finds something ought to be done about it. \zU5G#LQ  
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作为一个具有远见的人,蔡司意识到了这一点。并决心做点什么。 Zk UuniO  
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1866: The 1000th microscope leaves the Zeiss workshop. Despite all due pride, the principal is preoccupied, has been so for quite some time. He has realized, as nobody before him, that trial and error is insufficient in microscope making. He is convinced that even the most skilled craftsmanship reaches its limits where the perfect form of an optical system has to be found by experimentation rather than by computation. In Zeiss' own words: “The only remaining function of the working hand should be that of precisely implementing the forms and dimensions of all construction elements as determined by the design computation.” b',bi.FH  
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1866年,蔡司的第1000台显微镜出厂。尽管这一成绩值得骄傲,但蔡司心头却有另一件事。他意识到简单的重复试验方法很难对显微镜性能有大的提升。而在他之前,尚没有人考虑到这一点。他知道即使是顶级的技师的制造水准也是有限的;但理论上应该可以设计出更高性能的显微镜。按蔡司的原话来说:“手艺的作用,应该只是对详细设计所确定的结构、尺寸等各个制作关键要素的精确实现。” F9P0cGD s  
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Optics of calculable, predetermined performance: a demanding task. For some time, Zeiss tries to tackle it himself, in vain. But he does not give up. Then he meets Dr. Ernst Abbe, a physicist and mathematician, 26 years of age, lecturer at Jena's university. Carl Zeiss engages him as a free-lance research worker. Two matching minds join to make possible what nobody has thought of before. Z,!Xxv;4  
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可以计算并设计的光学意味着光学仪器的性能可以预见。这无意是一个艰巨而迫切的任务。蔡司一度想自己解决这个问题,但却无功而返。此时他结识了耶拿大学年仅26岁的物理与数学家恩斯特.阿贝博士(Dr.Ernst Abbe)。蔡司将其聘为自由研究人员。随后,两个思想的碰撞使得一个前所未有的想法得以实现。 QYfAf3te  
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During the ensuing six years, Zeiss and Abbe work intensively to lay the scientific foundations for the design and fabrication of optical systems. The path is arduous, and not without setbacks. A vast scope of theoretical studies and experiments have to be made, testing methods and equipment to be devised. In 1869, a new “illumination apparatus” is designed for use in the studies (“with all parts assembled according to purely theoretical considerations”), which soon comes into widespread use. _8b]o~[Z+  
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在此后的六年中,蔡司和阿贝通过紧密合作奠定了光学系统制造及设计的理论基石。这一过程充满艰辛和挫折。他们做了大量的理论研究与实验,设计了各种测试方法和仪器。1869年,为进一步研究工作而发明的一种全新的显微照明设备投入使用(“按照纯理论设计组装的显微照明系统”),并很快得到推广。 +yb$[E*  
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And finally, the breakthrough. In 1872, Ernst Abbe formulates his wave theory of microscopic imaging, and defines what becomes known as the Abbe sine condition. A great year in the history of Zeiss, and in the history of the microscope. Now, for the first time, Zeiss offers a range of 17 microscope objectives (three of them being of the immersion type) designed on the basis of optical research and mathematical operations. In Abbe's words, “Based on a precise study of the materials used, the designs concerned are specified by computation to the last detail – every curvature, every thickness, every aperture of a lens – so that any groping around” (Abbe might also have said, any trial and error approach) “is excluded.” KtU GI.X  
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1872年,他们有了重大突破。阿贝提出了显微镜成像的波动理论,并定义了阿贝正弦条件。这是蔡司公司发展史乃至显微镜历史上极其重要的一年。蔡司第一次按光学研究以及数学运算设计制造了17款物镜(其中三款是浸液镜头)。阿贝这样说道:“通过对所用材料的准确研究,设计者现在需要关心的是计算出透镜最详尽的参数,包括每一个曲度、厚度以及孔径。在黑暗中摸索方法已经成为过去。” R8[i XXjku  
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Abbe's discoveries mark a revolution in microscope design. The new microscopes built in Jena gain the name of Zeiss a worldwide reputation for quality and innovation. &=z1$ih>2\  
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阿贝的发现是显微镜设计理念的一次革命。从此耶拿造出来的蔡司显微镜成为了一个品牌,以其卓越的质量和创新赢得了世界。 -B*<Q[_  
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By the way, as far as quality is concerned, Carl Zeiss is a man of principle: With a hammer in his own hands, he smashes many a microscope made in his workshop that fails to satisfy his critical inspection – rather a striking method of quality assurance. -5V)q.Og  
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捎带一句:对质量的严格要求方面,蔡司是一个从不打折扣的人。他亲手用锤子砸碎了许多他认为无法过关的产品。即使现在看来,这恐怕仍是一种苛刻甚至奇特的质检手段。 H$~M`Y9I~  
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Abbe's findings are nothing less than the theoretical principles on which microscope objectives can be designed to predetermined performance specifications. They are nothing more either. In many respects, the theory does not materialize – due to lack of proper materials. As demands of microscope users on image quality increase, further progress is impeded because the glass available for lens making just does not have the desired dispersion properties to match improved lens designs. So Zeiss and Abbe, now business partners, face another challenge: the development of new kinds of optical glass satisfying Abbe's specifications. Another challenge, another trailblazing success. $ZQl IJZ  
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阿贝的发现是物镜最佳设计的理论基础。但很多方面的理论设计往往由于没有合适的材料而无法实现。随着显微镜用户对成像质量提出越来越高的要求,显微镜制造遇到了新的瓶颈-找不到合适的玻璃材料能够满足高性能的显微镜设计。此时已经是商业合作伙伴的蔡司和阿贝不得不面临新的挑战:研发新的光学玻璃能够满足阿贝的理论设计。最后,他们成功了! 5TXg;v#Z  
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Ingenious Theory, Visionary Practice YHs ?QsP  
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The Glass pPoH5CzcK  
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January 4th,1881: Ernst Abbe meets Otto Schott, a glass chemist aged under 30, who gained a doctorate in Jena in 1875. Abbe urges Schott to collaborate in the development of optical glasses with special properties. A few months later, in his native town of Witten, Schott makes the first melting experiments. In the following year he moves to Jena to work in a glassmaking laboratory specially set up for him (the nucleus of what later is to become the Jena glassworks of Schott & Genossen) c )03Ms4 D  
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1881年1月4日。阿贝遇到了Otto. 肖特,一位研究玻璃的化学家。此时的肖特尚未满30岁,此前他于1875年获得了耶拿大学的博士学位。阿贝鼓动肖特与他合作研发具有独特性质的光学玻璃材料。数月以后,在他的老家Witten,肖特完成了为此所做的第一次玻璃融化实验。次年,他移居到耶拿,在一个专门为他新建的玻璃制造实验室工作。 Yc d3QRB  
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The series of experiments consumes lots of effort, time and money. The success more than justifies every bit of it. S*g`d;8gV  
A vision becomes true when Zeiss, in 1886, markets the first lot of an entirely new type of microscope objectives: apochromates. Made in different varieties as dry, water immersion and homogeneous immersion objectives, and used together with so-called compensating eyepieces, they provide images free from color distortions throughout the image field, “without their design having to be more intricate”. x{Sd P$  
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This even applies to apochromates of relatively high aperture. ec?V[v  
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这期间的实验耗费了大量的人力物力。但随后的成功说明这一切的付出是值得的。1886年,蔡司发布了全新的物镜系列-消色差物镜。这一系列物镜包括了干物镜(不加浸液),水浸液物镜,均匀浸液物镜(译者注:浸液与玻璃有相同的折光系数)。这些物镜与新型的补偿目镜在用户的视野中展现了没有色差的完美图像。“如果没有这样的设计,图像会糟糕得多”。即使是大孔径的消色差物镜,改善的效果依旧很明显。(译者注:大孔径镜头是否消色差更严重?) O :^'x*}  
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Together with Abbe's wave theory and sine condition, the new glass types provide the basis for practically any modern high-performance optics. TsHF tj9S  
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阿贝的波动理论,阿贝正弦条件以及新型光学玻璃为现代高性能的光学成像奠定了可靠的基础。 vv.PF~:  
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A note on the enterprise in between: In 1886, the year of the glass breakthrough, Zeiss employs 250 workmen and turns out the 10,000th microscope. 4:1)~z  
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研发上突破的同时,蔡司公司的规模进一步扩大。1886年蔡司已经雇佣了250个工人,并在那一年出厂了第一万台显微镜。 "C74  
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During this period of breakthrough and upswing, the founder and prime mover of the enterprise leaves his comrades-in-arms: Carl Zeiss dies on December 3,1888. *H2]H @QHN  
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就在事业不断攀升的时候,卡尔.蔡司离开了他的战友。他于1888年12月3日去世,享年72岁(1816-1888)。 P))^vUt~  
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The scientific theory is there, and so are proper glasses. But there is yet another factor to be mastered before best results can be achieved in microscopy: Illumination. 6|=j+rScv  
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光学理论和光学玻璃的问题已经得到解决,但要得到最佳的成像效果还有一个需要解决的问题。那就是显微镜的照明。 <nzN$"%  
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Enter Professor August Köhler. In1893, at the age of 27, he reports on an illumination method he has devised for photomicrography. Known as Köhler illumination, this elaborate method makes it possible for microscopists to use the full resolving power of Abbe's objectives. ]?<n#=eW  
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这就要轮到奥古斯特.柯勒教授出场了。1893年,年仅27岁的柯勒,发表了他为显微照相设计的照明系统。我们所熟知的柯勒照明这一精巧设计,可以让显微学家将阿贝的理论发挥到极致。 p*qPcuAA  
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It cannot be a mere coincidence: Köhler joins Zeiss, contributes his illumination system, and later is put in charge of microscope development. WZewPn>#q  
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柯勒的加入不能说仅仅是一个巧合:柯勒为蔡司先是贡献了他的显微照明系统;而后他又成为了公司显微镜研发的主管。 [~mGsXV  
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To this very day, no other illumination method beats Köhler for optimum results in microscopy. 6[ga$nF?  
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直到今天,柯勒照明依旧是显微镜的最佳的照明设计。 =?Fkn4t  
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The death of Carl Zeiss is a grievous loss. In honor of the name of his friend and partner, Ernst Abbe in 1889 establishes the Carl Zeiss Foundation, and in 1891 transfers to it his shares in the Optical Workshop and the Schott Glassworks, together with those of Roderich, son of Carl Zeiss, and co-partner since 1881. j f~wBm d7  
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卡尔.蔡司的离去无疑是个巨大的损失。1889年阿贝为了纪念他这位老友兼合作者,建立了卡尔.蔡司基金。1891年他将自己在Optical Workshop以及Schott Glassworks两家公司的股份赠给了蔡司基金。蔡司基金的另一部分资金来自蔡司的儿子Rhderich(1881年后的新合伙人)。 \Q$HXK  
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As much as they miss Carl Zeiss, both as an initiator and a friend, his collaborators carry on the business in his spirit. The last decade of the 19th century is paved with milestones – inventions and design innovations that already look forward past the turn of the century: Metallographic microscopes, anastigmatic photolenses, binocular microscopes with image-reversing prisms, to name but a few. And then a push forward that is out of the ordinary, even for an enterprise as extraordinary as Zeiss. FCj{A D  
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卡尔蔡司去世后,其生前的友人和合作者将他的事业和精神继续发扬。19世纪的最后十年,对于蔡司公司而言是充满不断创新的十年。发明与设计上的革新将蔡司公司推向了新的世纪。如金相显微镜、消像散照相镜头、带有图像正置棱镜的双筒目镜;这些只是众多革新中的一小部分。有一些革新对于卡尔蔡司这样非同寻常的公司而言也是意义非凡的。 E\ 8  
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1896 is not a year as others. Ernst Abbe meets Horatio S. Greenough, an American biologist. Of course, they cannot help talking shop. Before long, the discussion is focused on a seemingly utopian idea: the construction of a stereoscopic microscope. Utopian? The idea is born under a lucky star. The American visitor draws a promising sketch on a sheet of paper. That's it. Around the turn of the year, Greenough's invention has taken shape as a Zeiss product: the first stereomicroscope ever. t2" (2  
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1896年是不同寻常的一年。那一年,阿贝结识了Horatio S. Greenough,一位美国生物学家。当他们谈到了各自的本行后,很快提出了一个看来是乌托邦似的想法:制造一台立体成像显微镜。尽管是个乌托邦似的想法,但这个想法得到了幸运女神的眷顾。这位来自美国的学者为阿贝画了一张极具吸引力的草图。在新年前后,Greenough的发明成为蔡司的一个产品。这就是立体显微镜。(译者注:就是我们现在常用的体视镜或解剖镜) depYqYK7G  
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The first year starting with 19 sees the Carl Zeiss company employing no less than 1070 people, and there is no end of growth. While activities over the first fifty years were exclusively devoted to microscopes, the enterprise now gets busy in more and more other lines of optical instruments. H* ,,^  
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20世纪的第一年蔡司的员工就已经超过1070人,并且增长仍在持续。尽管在20世纪的前半个世纪中显微镜仍旧是公司的主要业务,但其他光学设备开始逐步进入公司的业务范围。 h0?2j)X_  
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Still, the history of Zeiss is primarily a history of microscopes. So let us stick to the subject in this tribute to Carl Zeiss, the more so as there is no lack of sensational development, inventions and innovations during the first decades of the century. Their mere enumeration would go beyond the scope of this brochure. At least the most essential ones deserve mentioning, though. rQ4*k'lA:  
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蔡司的历史主要是显微镜的历史。为了纪念卡尔蔡司,我们继续关心蔡司公司的显微镜事业。新世纪的头十年中依旧是充满了革新,以至于这本小册子难以全部包括;但一些最重要的革新是必须提到的。 0,*%vG?Q  
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In 1903 Ernst Abbe retires from the management, handicapped by severe health problems. He lives to see in this year the limits of classical microscopy finally exceeded by the ultramicroscope, an invention by Henry Siedentopf and Richard Zsigmondy, which makes submicroscopical colloids visible. He lives to welcome August Köhler's study reports about the ultraviolet microscope in 1904 (which is followed by the luminescence microscope in 1913). On January 14, 1905, the man who jointly with Carl Zeiss wrote a decisive chapter of the history of microscope making dies, deeply mourned by all Zeiss employees. DG(7|`(aY  
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1903年,阿贝由于健康问题退出管理层。在他的有生之年,阿贝看到了经典显微镜的性能极限被超显微镜突破。由Henry Siedentopf和Richard Zsigmondy发明的超显微镜可以看到亚显微大小的胶体颗粒。阿贝还见证了紫外显微镜的诞生(此后又有1913年发明的冷光显微镜)。1905年1月14日,这一位与卡尔.蔡司共同书写了显微镜历史上最重要一章的人物离开人世。蔡司公司的同仁伤心不已。 lw8"'0  
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The ultramicroscope, the UV microscope and the luminescence microscope exemplify the inventive genius of those years and reflect three goals of microscopy, which have remained topical to date: Making ever smaller dimensions accessible to observation; observing living objects without damaging them; and finding methods to contrast the substances in such objects. 4Tzd; P6_  
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超显微镜,紫外显微镜、冷光显微镜的发明向我们展示了那个年代的天才智慧。同时也反映了显微术不断追求的三个目标:观察到更小尺度的物体;避免观察对活体的损伤(译者注:活体观察);提高观察对象的图像反差。 SDJH;c0   
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In 1911, Zeiss implements Köhler's idea of parfocalizing all objectives used on a microscope, which means that the image remains in focus when the observer exchanges one objective for another. In 1920, the comparison eyepiece is introduced, which allows simultaneous observation of two specimens under two microscopes. j\)H  
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1911年,蔡司产品实现了柯勒提出的在一台显微镜上所有物镜齐焦的想法。也就是,当从一个物镜转换另一个物镜后,图像依旧在焦面上。1920年,比较目镜问世。此项技术使得可以同时观察到来自两台显微镜的样品。 xxX/y2\  
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1924 sees the world's first lot production of infinity-corrected objectives for the Large Metallograph of the LeChatelier type. 4,}GyVJFb`  
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1924年第一次为Lechatelier型显微镜的显微照相功能批量生产了无限校正物镜。 a-PGW2G  
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Let us jump to 1931 to see the development of the first electron microscope, devised by Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska. Two years later, Zeiss once more revolutionizes microscope design with its legendary L stand. Curved tube arm, inclined viewing head, invariably horizontal stage and low-positioned controls – features that are enthusiastically welcomed by users for the operating convenience they provide. 4A~)b"j5  
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1931,Max Knoll和Ernst Ruska发明的电子显微镜。此后两年,蔡司再次革新了显微镜的设计理念。他们推出了Stand L系列。弯曲的镜臂,倾斜的目镜,可移动的水平载物台和下垂的控制臂-这一系列人性化的设计得到了用户的一致好评。 g.&\6^)8p  
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Photomicroscopes follow – the Neophot in 1934, and the Ultraphot in 1937. In 1938, Zeiss presents another “first”: After long and tedious experimentation, Hans Boegehold succeeds in flattening the image field of objectives, so that the company can market the first planachromats. Upon a suggestion by Frits Zernike, Zeiss in 1936 creates the prototype of the phase microscope. .=aMj rME  
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不久专门用于照相的照相显微镜出现。先是1934年推出的Neophot型号, 随后是1937年的Ultraphot型号。 9Z}S]-u /  
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During World War II, microscope development has to be soft-pedaled, on government order. Nevertheless, the microscope development laboratory designs and builds a cine-micrographic apparatus and in1943 shoots the first cine record of a cell division through a phase microscope – an examination method that opens up a new era of cell research. Z7ZWf'o  
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二战期间,蔡司显微镜的发展受控于德国government。虽然没有大的发展,但却设计出显微录像仪。1943年,在一台相差显微镜下第一次拍摄记录了细胞分裂的动态过程;从此发端了细胞研究的新纪元。 75' Ua$  
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This may suffice as a fast glimpse of the near-half century of Zeiss since 1900. The grief over Abbe's death, enormous technical progress, successful business, setbacks: all considered, a great time. }j]<&I}  
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如果简单回顾一下20世纪的前半页,那无疑是一个伟大的时代:既有阿贝离去带来的伤痛,也有巨大的技术革新,以及商业上的成功;当然也有许多的挫折。 6jQ&dN{=qB  
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Now imagine, in striking contrast, the drastic consequences of the war and its aftermath. 8/kx3  
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想象一下当时的社会,战争的创伤显得这些成就更加不易。 3T.M?UG>  
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1945: The disastrous war has ended with Germany's (and Europe's) political and ideological division. As a bitter consequence, Zeiss is forcibly cut in two. $$;2jX" I  
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1945年,二战结束,德国和欧洲的政治格局以及意识形态出现分裂。不幸的是蔡司也被迫一分为二。 h _7;UQH  
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Zeiss managers and many scientists are evacuated to the American zone, many more scientists, designers, engineers and foremen taken to Russia. By 1947, all production facilities in Jena, save for a rest of 6%, have been dismantled and shipped abroad. Y'H/ $M N  
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蔡司的管理人员和许多科学家被撤离到美军安全区,更多的科学家、设计师、工程师以及技师被带到苏联。直到1947年,耶拿工厂里的设备大部分被拆除并运送到国,仅仅留下6%。 G.ARu-2's  
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In the first years after the war, Carl Zeiss once again demonstrates the significance of a future-oriented attitude. Reconstruction in Jena starts with a workforce of about 4500. 1c~#]6[  
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在战后的第一年,蔡司公司再次展示出对未来的信心。约4500名工人在耶拿开始了蔡司的重建。 qiJ{X{lI  
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A new start is also made by 250 people at Oberkochen, Württemberg. Despite adverse conditions, the old Carl Zeiss spirit refuses to give up. Splitting, in this case, means doubling. r{&"]'/X  
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于此同时,250名员工在东德的Oberkochen也在重建蔡司。尽管当时条件十分艰苦,但卡尔.蔡司的精神一直鼓舞这大家不要放弃。从某种意义上说,蔡司的分裂可以理解为我们了多了一个蔡司。 5o #8DIal  
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Back to the year 1857. Rudolf Winkel sets up a mechanic's workshop in Göttingen. Guess what he makes? Right – microscopes. Simple ones at first, compound ones later. Good ones throughout. He is successful, exports a lot, expands the business, and has his sons enter it. Ernst Abbe first visits Winkel in 1894. In 1911, Carl Zeiss becomes the principal shareholder of the company, which continues to grow. ;DTNw=  
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让我们回到1857年,当时Rudolf.Winkel在哥廷根创建了一个从事显微镜的生产机械厂。先是简单显微镜后来是复式显微镜。他的事业一直很顺利,并且有相当的出口订单。阿贝第一次拜访Winkel是在1894年,1911年蔡司公司成为该公司的主要股东。 RfD$@q9  
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After 1945, Jena's traditional microscope manufacture is continued in Göttingen. In 1957, the firm of R. Winkel GmbH is taken over by the Carl Zeiss Foundation. c/u;v69r  
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1945年后,耶拿的显微镜传统产业在哥廷根得到延续。1957年,蔡司基金接管了R.Winkel GmbH公司。 ?g&]*zc^\  
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Today, the company which has contributed many improvements to microscope design, still makes about 80% of all Zeiss microscopes and employs about 750 people. They simply have deserved this brief flashback ^iTA4 0K  
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今天,这个曾经对显微镜设计做出诸多改进的公司仍旧拥有整个蔡司显微镜业务的80%,拥有750名员工。 =Y BJ7.Y  
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For four decades, the Zeiss plants in eastern and western Germany operate separately and independently of one another. Achievements are made on both sides. There is no point in separately counting the points made by either side. Let us rather count the points made by Carl Zeiss at large. There are many of them in the chronicle of Zeiss microscope making in the years after 1945. ^V:YNUqp#  
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在分开后的40年中,位于东德和西德的两个蔡司工厂各自独立运作。但双方都有不错的发展。在此不必单独列举各自的成绩。我们把他们的成就一起记录在蔡司1945年后的发展史上。 Wi[Y@  
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Take 1949, for example: The intensive development efforts in transmission electron microscopy bears fruit. Or1950: The first member of the Standard family of microscopes sees the light of day. It ushers in a modular, highly flexible system, which becomes one of the most successful developments in the history of microscopes. In the same year, Zeiss applies for a patent on the invention of a magnification changer known by the name of Optovar. 1955: Launching of an all-new photomicroscope with integrated camera and automatic exposure control. 1959: The year of Ultrafluar. Zeiss succeeds in making dioptric objectives suitable for both ultraviolet and visible light. A big step ahead in microspectrophotometry. xU&rUk/L  
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比如拿1949年说:在付出许多努力后透射式电子显微镜研制成功。1950年,Standard系列显微镜开光。该系列产品采用了极具灵活性的模块化设计。这一设计理念是显微镜历史上最为成功的典范之一。同年一款照相显微镜发布,该款显微镜拥有一个与显微镜整合的照相机,并且有自动曝光控制系统。1959年,蔡司成功发布了Ultrafluar系列,研制出双光物镜,可以同时适用于可见光与紫外(译者注:普通玻璃透镜无法透过紫外)。这是显微分光光度计发展上的一件大事。 yDKX,  
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In 1965, materials researchers, doctors and biologists are happy with the new interference phase contrast (Interphako) technique for measuring object thicknesses in the nanometer range and refractive indices of tiniest substance volumes. In 1966 the Mikroval series of microscopes is g/E;OcFaO  
started. The Ultraphot and Neophot, photomicroscopes of good repute, are upgraded into #2 versions and continue on their triumphant progress around the world. A scanning microscope photometer for the automatic photometry of microscopic specimens follows in1969. Zeiss is always likely to turn out some innovation or other. #G,e]{gs  
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1965年,材料研究人员、医生、生物学家乐见干涉相差技术(interphako系列)的应用将显微样品的厚度测量精确到纳米的精度范围,并且可以测量极小颗粒的折光系数。1966年,Mikroval系列显微镜出厂。此时,Ultraphot 和 Neopho型号的照相显微镜深入人心。在此基础上发布了其升级版,并再次赢得好评。1969年,一款可以自动检测显微样品光度的扫描显微光度仪问世。蔡司此时已经蓄势待发新的一轮革新。 CR/LV]G  
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1973 sees another instant: Zeiss presents the Axiomat microscope system, a modular system with zoom optics providing unparalleled stability and imaging performance. In the same year, Epiquant makes its debut, a fully automatic digital petrofabric analyzer. In1975 follow the Plan-Neofluar multi-immersion objectives, in 1976 the inverted IM 35 and ICM 405 microscopes in a design that sets new standards. kSDV#8 uZ  
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1973年,发布了Axiomat显微镜系统,具有变焦以及模块化的设计,为用户提供了出色的稳定性和成像质量。同一年,一款名叫Epiquant的岩性分析仪问世。还有:1975年,Plan-Neofluar 多种浸液物镜;1976年倒置显微镜IM35,ICM405相继出厂。 X[|>r@Aa!  
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1982: Zeiss creates the prototype of a laser scanning microscope. Another sensation in the same year: the JENA MICROSCOPES 250-CF with new, fully color-corrected and infinity- corrected objectives, available at last for daily routine in medicine and biology. 1986: ICS optics, an optical highlight that still causes experts to go into raptures; the SI (System Integration) design, the Axioplan and Axiophot universal microscopes, the Axiotron inspection microscope for the semiconductor industry. 1987: Axioskop, a high-grade routine microscope. 1988: Axiovert inverted microscopes ... where to begin, where to end? us]ah~U6A  
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1982年蔡司制造出一台激光扫描显微镜原型;配备了全新的全色差及无限校正物镜的JENA MICROSCOPES 250-CF问世,给医药和生物研究人员带来了方便;1986的 ICS optics系统至今拥有诸多好评;SI(系统整合)设计, Axioplan和 Axiophot通用型显微镜; (]pQ.3  
用于半导体工业的Axiotron检测显微镜;1987: Axioskop高性能常规显微镜; 1988: Axiovert i倒置显微镜……一项项革新不断涌现! CkP!4^J qQ  
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1990: A great year. And, just this once, not because of microscopes. The Berlin wall comes down, and so does the wall between the two concerns bearing a common name. The agreement made between them to go together from now on seems to release extra thrust and to open up a new dimension – without borders or other limits. GY!&H"%  
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1990对于蔡司同样是非凡的一年,这次不是因为显微镜的革新。而是因为柏林墙的推倒,同时推倒了拥有同一名字的两个公司之间无形的墙。此后双方走到一起,再也没有什么隔阂或限制。 -H]svOX  
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There always seems to have existed some affinity between Carl Zeiss and top-flight scientists. People with bold ideas have sought to get in touch with Zeiss, where many of the tools and methods for their research have come from, while Zeiss has always !ine|NM  
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entertained close relations with universities and other research institutes. No wonder that quite a number of Nobel laureates have either, in their research, used Zeiss microscopes, or made discoveries or inventions that went into them. Our applause is due to all of these celebrities, even though we can only mention a few here. IXH;QwR:  
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蔡司公司于顶级科学家之间总是惺惺相惜。具有大胆想法的科学家总是乐意于蔡司接触,寻找能用得上的研究方法或工具。蔡司也很享受与大学或研究机构的紧密关系。毫不奇怪,许多诺贝尔获得者均使用过蔡司显微镜并做出了重要的研究发现。 C|>#|5XaF  
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Robert Koch, Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1905. Koch is considered the founder of modern bacteriology. In the eighteen-eighties, the country doctor discovered the bacilli that caused tuberculosis and cholera. In a letter to Carl Zeiss he wrote, “A large part of my success I owe to your excellent microscopes”. In 1904, he received the 10,000th Zeiss (=7e~'DC  
objective, a homogeneous immersion system, as a present. _7 n+j  
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罗伯特.科赫,1905年医学奖获得者。科赫是现代细菌学的奠定者。在他18到80多岁之间,这位乡村医生发现了引起肺结核和霍乱的病菌。在一封给卡尔蔡司的信中写道:“我成功的一大部分归功于你出色的显微镜。”1904年,他获赠蔡司的第10000枚物镜。一枚均匀浸液物镜。 B<+}_3.  
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Richard Zsigmondy, Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1925. As a professor at Göttingen, Zsigmondy conducted pioneering research in colloid chemistry. He invented the ultramicroscope in 1903, and two types of membrane filters in 1918 and 1922. Ultramicroscopy after Siedentopf and Zsigmondy makes visible submicroscopic particles whose linear extension is below the microscope's resolution limit. H<"{wUPT0  
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Richard Zsigmondy,1925年化学奖获得者。作为一名哥廷根的教授,Zsigmondy在胶体化学方面做出了开创性的工作。他于1903年发明了超显微镜,1918和1922年又分别发明了两种滤膜。超显微镜可以看到亚显微颗粒的线性延伸,而这是普通显微镜的分辨率无法达到的。 IZniRd;  
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Frits Zernike, Nobel Prize for Physics, 1953. The Dutch physicist, when experimenting with reflection gratings in 1930, discovered that he could observe the phase position of each ray, and sought to utilize the effect for microscopy. Together with Zeiss he developed the first phase-contrast microscope, the prototype of which was made in 1936. It allowed the examination of living cells without harmful chemical staining. o~2bk<]z  
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,1953年物理学奖获得者。1930年,这位荷兰物理学家在用反射光栅做实验时观察到光的相位,并致力于将这一现象应用于显微镜。他与蔡司共同合作于1936年研制出第一台相差显微镜原型。这一技术避免了化学染色对细胞的影响,从而使得对活体细胞观察成为可能。 KSc&6UVz^  
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Manfred Eigen, Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1967. The molecular biologist and director of the Max Planck Institute in Göttingen developed a method of keeping track of extremely fast chemical and biochemical processes. In a joint effort, Eigen, his Swedish colleague Rudolf Riegler and Carl Zeiss succeeded in 1993 to create ConfoCor, the first commercial fluorescence correlation spectrometer l)Q,*i  
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,1967年化学奖获得者。分子生物学家、德国哥廷根马普研究所主任。他发明了一种可以跟踪快速的化学和生化过程的方法。通过于瑞典同事Eigen以及蔡司公司的合作,于1993年成功地研制出第一台商用荧光相关分光计ConfoCor。 yaa+j8s]  
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Bert Sakman (photo) and Erwin Neher, Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1991. The two scientists of the Max Planck Institute conducted epoch-making investigations of living cells. All microscopes they used were custom-designed Zeiss products specially made for this application. jSaEwN  
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Bert Sakman 和Erwin Neher,1991年医学奖。两位科学家在活细胞研究做出了划时代的工作。所用的显微镜是蔡司根据他们的研究订制的。 $qP9EZ]JC  
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Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (photo) and Eric Wieschaus, Nobel Price for Medicine, 1995. Two Americans and one German studied the hereditary factors of the fruit fly (Drosophila) to explore the development of complex organisms from an egg cell and the mechanisms of morphogenesis. The epoch-making discoveries might, in the long run, throw light on the causes of deformities, the Nobel committee declared. For their experiments, the three scientists extensively used Zeiss microscopes, among them the Stemi 2000 stereomicroscope. M GN*i9CE  
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Eric Wieschaus,1995年医学奖获得者。分别是两位美国科学家和一位德国科学家。他们的研究方向是果蝇发育的遗传机制。这项研究对探索动物发育畸型的原因会有重要启发。他们实验中所用的显微镜主要是蔡司产品,包括Stemi 2000 stereomicroscope |os2@G$  
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只看该作者 1 发表于: 2010-07-21
蔡司挺牛的,呵呵。辉煌的历史,希望能再创辉煌的未来。
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只看该作者 2 发表于: 2010-07-21
很详细啊,翻译翻得不错,楼主辛苦了
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只看该作者 3 发表于: 2010-07-22
没有汉语的翻译,英语真看不懂多少了,谢谢楼主
天道酬勤  厚德载物
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只看该作者 4 发表于: 2010-07-22
楼主的英语真牛啊!翻译的真不错,了解显微镜的历史了
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只看该作者 5 发表于: 2010-07-22
我推荐给仪器负责人看了,他也说很好,谢谢啦
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只看该作者 6 发表于: 2010-07-22
太有时间了。。。
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只看该作者 7 发表于: 2010-07-22
论坛里新来了个高人啊。推荐原创大赛吧!
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只看该作者 8 发表于: 2010-08-03
蔡司的历史   
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只看该作者 9 发表于: 2011-08-12
蔡司 就是蔡司
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只看该作者 10 发表于: 2011-08-22
向搂主表示敬意!
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只看该作者 11 发表于: 2012-08-12
人活在背影里是一种悲哀, 超高分辨现有现实意义是拯救这批悲哀的人群. Pv0OoN*eJ{  
请活在当下吧
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